This review describes the involvement of the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase in various aspects of animal reproduction, including critical roles in embryonic development and specific sperm functions. In addition to regulating ion concentrations, Na+/K+-ATPase participates in several cell signalling pathways. Understanding the role of this molecule creates new opportunities to enhance or suppress various aspects of reproductive biology.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development
Volume 29 Number 8 2017
RD16163Potential risks to offspring of intrauterine exposure to maternal age-related obstetric complications
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the negative effects of delayed motherhood on an offspring’s morbidity later in life, but they are not supported by clinical and epidemiological evidence. In the present study, we show that the negative effects on offspring of delayed motherhood may be induced by embryo or fetal epigenetic DNA reprogramming associated with maternal age-related obstetric complications. This outcome has direct clinical implications for those women wanting to enrol in a fertility preservation program to offset age-related declines in fertility.
RD16056Evidence of proteinuria, but no other characteristics of pre-eclampsia, in relaxin-deficient mice
This paper reports that pregnant mice deficient in relaxin (Rln–/–) did not exhibit characteristics associated with preeclampsia; plasma sFlt-1 concentrations and blood pressure in pregnant Rln–/– mice were no different compared with age-matched wildtype mice. Although there was evidence of proteinuria in older pregnant Rln–/– mice, this was also observed in non-pregnant mice and was not a consequence of pregnancy. Therefore, pregnant Rln–/– mice are not a suitable animal model to study preeclampsia.
RD16007Circumventing the natural, frequent oestrogen waves of the female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) using oral progestin (Altrenogest)
We found that cheetahs do not display typical estrous cycles, but rather frequent waves of estrogenic activity every 7 to 10 days. For effective ovulation induction and the most mature oocytes, gonadotropin treatments had to be given at least 3 days after an estrogen peak. Follicular activity can be suppressed by progestin supplementation, thereby providing a way to quiesce the ovary beforehand.
RD16124Periconceptional undernutrition affects in utero methyltransferase expression and steroid hormone concentrations in uterine flushings and blood plasma during the peri-implantation period in domestic pigs
A restricted diet applied to females during the peri-conceptional period may have consequences during the peri-implantation period. In this study we examined DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a expression in endometrium and myometrium and oestradiol 17β (E2) and progesterone concentrations in the uterus and blood plasma in pigs during the peri-implantation period. Undernutrition during the peri-conceptional period affects maintenance and de novo DNA methylation in the endometrium, de novo DNA methylation in the myometrium and intrauterine E2 concentrations during the peri-implantation period.
RD16031Methylated oligonucleotide (MON)-induced promoter hypermethylation is associated with repression of CDH1 expression and contributes to the migration and invasion of human trophoblast cell lines
Aberrant DNA methylation has been linked to deficiencies in trophoblast motility and invasion in pregnancy complications. We increased trophoblast cell motility and invasiveness through inducing site-specific hypermethylation and repressing gene expression of CDH1 by sense-methylated oligonucleotides (MONs). The results indicate that MON-mediated DNA methylation on the CDH1 promoter may alter gene expression and contribute to trophoblast motility and invasion.
RD15546Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in bovine oviducts is higher in the postovulatory phase than during the oestrus and luteal phase
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) may be the molecular link between maternal obesity and the quality of early embryos. This study revealed that MIF expression in the oviduct, where mammalian embryos spend their first 3 days, is higher during the postovulatory phase than during oestrus and the luteal phase in heifers. Therefore, oviduct MIF may be essential for producing good-quality embryos.
RD15539Stathmin 1 plays a role in endometrial decidualisation by regulating hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor during embryo implantation
The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of action of stathmin 1 (Stmn1), a protein identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) in a previous proteomic analysis, in regulating embryo implantation, a critical process in pregnancy. Stmn1 was found to play a role in decidualisation and embryo implantation by inhibiting the expression of phosphorylated Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the potential role of Stmn1 during embryo implantation.
RD15524Analysis of in vitro follicle development during the onset of premature ovarian insufficiency in a mouse model
The developmental potential of follicles from a mouse model of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) was assessed using follicle culture. Although, follicles cultured from 3- and 6-week-old mice had decreased survival compared to Controls, a population of follicles retain the potential of full development in vitro. These results indicate that in vitro follicle culture is a promising method to rescue follicle development after the onset of POI in this model.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control several reproductive functions, including oocyte maturation, implantation and early embryonic development. We developed a method for accurate miRNA identification in a small sample of bovine blastocysts. Using pools of only 30 embryos, we identified miRNAs that regulate target genes and metabolic pathways that had not been associated with early embryogenesis before, and are potential biomarkers of developmental competence.
RD16190Effects of freezing and activation on membrane quality and DNA damage in Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis spermatozoa
Xenopus frogs are key organisms for studying basic biology and for modelling human disease. Genetically altered lines of frogs are therefore made, and it is important for animal welfare and cost-effectiveness to store these as frozen spermatozoa. In this study we show that Xenopus sperm cryopreservation damages the DNA and plasma membrane of spermatozoa and start to identify factors affecting damage levels.
Several voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel subunits are expressed in testis, but their contribution to testicular function remains largely unknown. We provide direct evidence of the relevance of Kv6.4 for male fertility since the targeted deletion of this gene in mice disrupted spermiogenesis, resulting in male sterility. This makes Kv6.4 a potentially interesting pharmacological target for the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.
RD15530Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma improves motility, modifies subpopulation patterns and reduces chromatin alterations
Seminal plasma could benefit boar semen when added during thawing. This study shows that that the addition of 10% or 50% seminal plasma during post-thawing incubation improved total motility and the motility pattern (motile subpopulations) of spermatozoa. Chromatin changes were almost non-existent for samples from some male boars, both after thawing and during the incubation, but in males susceptible to these sorts of chromatin changes, seminal plasma reduced or abolished them.
RD16205Changes in testicular function proteins and sperm acrosome status in rats treated with valproic acid
The mechanism by which valproic acid (VPA) causes male infertility is not known. In the present study, testicular proteins and acrosome status were investigated in VPA-treated rats. Acrosome reacted spermatozoa and the expression of Ki-67, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, except for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, were decreased in VPA-treated rats. These changes to testicular proteins responsible for spermatogenesis result in male infertility after VPA treatment.
Serum affects lipid metabolism in oocytes and embryos, and cGMP has been shown to affect lipolysis in adipocytes. The present study shows that serum in the maturation medium interferes with lipid metabolism in oocytes and cumulus cells and these effects depend, at least in part, on the cGMP pathway. Evidence of involvement of this pathway in lipolysis in cumulus–oocyte complexes could contribute to the development of better culture systems for the in vitro production of oocytes and embryos with lower lipid accumulation and better cryotolerance.
We recently discovered that the male seminal vesicles harbour a novel seminal fluid microbiome (SFM). The present study shows that short-term feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) changes the bacterial composition of the seminal fluid and fecal microbiomes. HFD-induced SFM alterations might lead to detrimental health consequences in males, their reproductive partners and resulting offspring.
RD15489Expression of C-type lectin receptors and Toll-like receptors in decidua of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion
This study aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The results suggest that the balance between C-type lectin-like receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was tilted towards a TLR-dominant response in URSA patients, which may disrupt maternal–fetal immune tolerance, resulting in spontaneous abortion.
RD15488In vitro oocyte maturation in a medium containing reduced sodium chloride improves the developmental competence of pig oocytes after parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer
The quality of oocytes is a crucial factor in the field of reproductive biotechnology. We observed that maturation of pig oocytes in hypotonic medium with reduced NaCl improves the developmental competence of oocytes by affecting the cytoplasmic microenvironment. An oocyte maturation system using a medium with reduced NaCl could potentially improve the efficiency of reproduction in livestock species after further optimisation.
RD16122A combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and FSH promotes proliferation of prepubertal bovine Sertoli cells isolated and cultured in vitro
Sertoli cells, which support and coordinate developing sperm in the testes, were isolated from 8-week-old Holstein bull calves. A combination of two hormones (IGF-I and FSH) enhanced multiplication of Sertoli cells. We concluded that increased IGF-I concentrations in bull calves fed high-levels of nutrition during early life increases Sertoli cell number, supports testicular development and results in earlier puberty.
RD15537Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in relation to age and season in male and female beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has been proposed as a biomarker of ovarian reserve in women and has been detected in many species; however, this is the first characterisation of AMH in a cetacean. AMH was described in males and females from the year of birth to over 30 years of age during different reproductive seasons, and a decrease in AMH in older animals (>30 years old) was detected. AMH may be of value for reproductive health monitoring of the species and as a biomarker of reproductive senescence in both sexes.
RD16163_NCNote of clarification: Potential risks to offspring of intrauterine exposure to maternal age-related obstetric complications
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
The testis is the organ essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. This paper profiles differences in DNA methylation levels during prepubertal porcine testis development, and provides new insights into mammalian testis development and represents a foundation for additional research using the pig as a model animal.
RD17041Quantitative changes of extravillous trophoblast cells in heavy smoker mothers compared with healthy controls
Extravillous trophoblast cells are one of the main elements that are affected by maternal smoking during pregnancy. Quantitative changes in extravillous trophoblast cells could be evidence for the hypothesis that changes in these cells could affect fetal health by changes in normal placentation.
RD16338Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is involved in porcine in vitro fertilisation and early embryo development
Fertilisation and development of the mammalian egg is still not well understood, illustrated by low efficiencies of assisted reproductive technologies. The role of a cell membrane receptor for calcium (CASR) was studied, using pig spermatozoa and eggs as models. Significant effects were demonstrated by stimulating this receptor at different steps of the process. These findings are useful for future basic and applied research.
RD17081Markers of protein synthesis are increased in fetal membranes and myometrium after human labour and delivery
Inflammation plays an important role in the initiation of preterm birth, which remains the largest cause of neonatal deaths. In the present study, components of the protein synthesis machinery were significantly increased with labouring compared to non-labouring fetal membranes and myometrium, and blockade of protein synthesis significantly reduced inflammation in the myometrium. These results may provide further insight into the pathways involved in the initiation of preterm birth.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) contribute to an exclusive protection system in the uterus during the oestrus cycle; however, the importance of TLRs in tissue repair within the involuting uterus is not known. Herein we show that TLRs are constitutively expressed in uterine cells and that the localisation pattern of TLRs in the endometrium varies with structural changes in the involuting uterus. These results suggest that TLRs have a physiological role in the uterine remodelling events during the post partum involution period.
RD17045Unique oestrogen receptor ligand-binding domain sequence of native parrots: a possible link between phytoestrogens and breeding success
Hormones in plants may provide an important trigger for activating breeding activity in Kākāpō, a critically endangered New Zealand parrot. By comparing native and Australian parrots for their ability to respond to steroid hormones, we discovered novel sequences in the receptivity of parrots to oestrogenic compounds. Receptor modeling revealed that altered interactions with plant oestrogens in parrots may enhance the physiological pathways linked to fertility and successful breeding.
RD17068Efficient generation of goats with defined point mutation (I397V) in GDF9 through CRISPR/Cas9
Taking advantages of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system, we achieved a precise single-nucleotide substitution in the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene using a single-stranded oligo deoxynucleotide as a homology-dependent repair template with a relatively high efficiency in order to increase litter size in goats. The present study provides an alternative approach for introducing defined point mutations in large animal models for the improvement of significant traits, as well as for the functional validation of key variants.
RD16441Expanded equine cumulus–oocyte complexes exhibit higher meiotic competence and lower glucose consumption than compact cumulus–oocyte complexes
Equine immature oocytes are classified as expanded or compact and are matured in the laboratory to obtain offspring; higher maturation rates are reported for expanded oocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether differences in the maturation capacity of these oocytes is related to differences in glucose uptake, metabolism or apoptosis. Consistent metabolic and genomic differences were found between expanded and compact oocytes: compact oocytes consumed more glucose but matured less than expanded oocytes. This indicates that the maturation requirements vary for compact and expanded oocytes.
RD17174Linoleic (LA) and linolenic (ALA) acid concentrations in follicular fluid of prepubertal goats and their effect on oocyte in vitro maturation and embryo development
Juvenile in vitro embryo transfer (JIVET) can increase the gain rate by reducing the generation interval, but the low quality of these oocytes leads to poor embryo production. In this study we hypothesised that oocyte quality could be related to omega 3 (linolenic acid, ALA) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, LA) concentrations in follicular fluid. No differences were found in ALA and LA concentrations in relation to follicle diameter. The addition of a high LA (omega 6) concentration to the IVM medium impaired oocyte competence to develop up to the blastocyst stage.
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix formed by few glycoproteins that covers the oocyte and plays an important role during fertilisation. The identification of ZP glycoproteins in carnivores is relevant for an understanding of sperm–ZP interactions and species specificity. In this study, molecular and in silico analyses demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in four families (Felidae, Mustelidae, Odobenidae and Ursidae), whereas in three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) ZP1 is pseudogenised. This information could be relevant for the development of more specific and efficient contraceptive vaccines for carnivores.
RD16301Visfatin and resistin in gonadotroph cells: expression, regulation of LH secretion and signalling pathways
Resistin and visfatin, two adipokines, modulate reproduction in the gonads, but their actions at the hypothalamic–pituitary level are not known. We showed in vitro that these hormones decreased LH secretion from mouse gonadotroph cells and that in vivo visfatin may be a myokine as well as an adipokine in mice. Our findings suggest that these hormones may influence mouse female fertility by regulating LH secretion at the pituitary level.
RD17107Delayed onset of puberty in male offspring from bisphenol A-treated dams is followed by the modulation of gene expression in the hypothalamic–pituitary–testis axis in adulthood
The developing fetal brain is a potent target for endocrine chemical disruption by bisphenol A (BPA) because of its lipophilicity. In the present study, perinatal exposure to BPA changed the expression of genes regulating the hypothalamic–pituitary–testis (HPT) axis at the hypothalamic, pituitary and testes levels. Maternal exposure to BPA during fetal differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the hypothalamus caused reprogramming of the HPT axis in adult male offspring
Juvenile in vitro embryo transfer (JIVET) can increase the genetic gain rate by reducing the generation interval, but the low quality of the oocytes and higher oxidative levels leads to poor embryo production. In the present study we hypothesised that melatonin could be a suitable tool for improving oocyte competence in juvenile goats. The results show that melatonin is present in the follicular fluid in juvenile goats and its addition to the in vitro maturation medium reduces oxidation and increases embryo development showing its potential role for JIVET.
RD16282Increased high molecular weight adiponectin, but decreased total adiponectin and kisspeptin, in central precocious puberty compared with aged-matched prepubertal girls
The factors initiating puberty have not been clearly revealed. The present study compared serum total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and age-matched controls. Total adiponectin levels were low, but HMW adiponectin levels were high in girls with CPP, which probably leads to decreased inhibition of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neuronal activity. This may provide an insight into how adipokines are involved in the initiation of puberty.
RD16290Novel insights into the role of cell-free seminal mRNAs on semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls (Bos taurus)
The selection of fertile males is important to augment fertility in cows, and breeding soundness examinations may not provide information on the fertility potential of bulls. Expression levels of seminal plasma RNAs may be used to predict the fertilising ability and cryotolerance of bull semen. Such non-invasive tests using seminal plasma may aid in the assessment of the health of the reproductive tract and in the selection of males for breeding.
RD17089Temperature gradients in vivo influence maturing male and female gametes in mammals: evidence from the cow
Is the temperature in a preovulatory follicle lower than in adjacent tissues? Using a novel non-invasive approach it was demonstrated that bovine follicular fluid before ovulation is cooler than the uterine surface and deep rectal tissues, whereas temperature is not reduced in follicles suffering ovulation failure. Follicular antral temperature could become a more valuable indicator of oocyte potential than a purely morphological assessment.
RD17136Effect of seminal plasma from high- and low-fertility bulls on cauda epididymal sperm function
Seminal plasma bathes the sperm upon ejaculation but its function has yet to be fully defined. This study sought to characterise the effect of seminal plasma from bulls of high or low fertility on sperm function. Seminal plasma reduced osmotic resistance of epididymal sperm, regardless of whether it was from high or low fertility bulls.
Enzymatic disaggregation of murine ovaries yielded higher numbers of morphologically intact follicules than previously reported. The molecular markers DAPI, CMXRos and alpha-tubulin were applied to assess post-harvest follicular morphology, mitochondrial function and cellular cytoskeleton respectively. A new preparation of animal origin-free collagenase IV caused more damage to follicular integrity, mitochondrial function and the cytoskeleton than enzyme-free mechanical isolation, but another preparation of collagenase IV ovarian disaggregation gave the highest yield of morphologically intact follicles containing viable mitochondria.
RD17111Splicing-related single nucleotide polymorphism of RAB, member of RAS oncogene family like 2B (RABL2B) jeopardises semen quality in Chinese Holstein bulls
Bull semen quality traits are vital parameters in evaluating the fertility potential of bulls. In the present study we demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism within the exonic splicing enhancer motif caused aberrant splicing of the RAB, member of RAS oncogene family like 2B (RABL2B) gene, and that semen quality differed among Chinese Holstein bulls with different RABL2B genotypes. These results also provide a novel research idea for further elucidating the complex molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of bull fertility.
RD17100Mouse minipuberty coincides with gonocyte transformation into spermatogonial stem cells: a model for human minipuberty
Subsequent infertility and testicular cancer are major problems for boys with undescended testis. This study aims to examine whether mouse has similar postnatal hormonal changes as boys, so it can be used as a model to study human testis development. Our results demonstrated that mouse can be used as a model for human minipuberty.
The importance of the oviduct for different reproductive processes is known; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying oviductal regulation are not fully understood. The results of the present study demonstrate that gene expression in the oviduct is regulated during the oestrous cycle, with some oviductal proteins that could be related to several reproductive processes being described for the first time. These findings are very important in our understanding of the different processes that take place in the oviduct as fertilisation or early embryo development.
The expression of IL-11 is stimulated by LH/hCG in theca cells of preovulatory follicles via PKA-MAPK pathway and TLR4 activation. IL-11 increases progesterone production by stimulating StAR expression.
RD16386Effects of vitrification of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage on cumulus expansion, nuclear progression and cytoplasmic maturation
Although oocyte cryopreservation is desired for the preservation of female germplasm, the developmental competence of vitrified porcine oocytes has been notoriously low due to unclear reasons. We investigated the effects of vitrification of porcine oocytes at the immature stage. Vitrification triggered premature nuclear resumption and nucleolar fragmentation from which some oocytes could recover, suggesting that enhancement of recovery processes might be a possible way to improve competency.
RD16366Development of pre-implantation porcine blastocysts cultured within alginate hydrogel systems either supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 or conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp Peptide
Deficiencies in the initiation of embryo elongation play a major role in early embryonic mortality in the pig. This study demonstrates that embryos encapsulated and cultured in alginate hydrogels with the integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence had increased embryonic survival and modulation of gene expression to support increased steroid production and adequate immune responsiveness, with a larger number exhibiting the morphological changes compared to other in vitro treatments in this study. These results illustrate the importance of the integrin-binding RGD peptide sequence for stimulating the initiation of embryo elongation and improving embryo survival.
RD16378Neuromodulatory effect of oestradiol in the metabolism of ovarian progesterone and oestradiol during dioestrus II: participation of the superior mesenteric ganglion
This work demonstrates that estradiol through the peripheral nervous system modulates the ovarian physiology, favoring the physiological luteolysis. The objective of this work was to demonstrate whether estradiol in superior mesenteric ganglion modifies the release of ovarian progesterone, estradiol, nitric oxide and noradrenaline on DII day. The ganglionic stimulation produces a decrease in the ovarian release of progesterone and estradiol by an increase of nitric oxide and decrease of noradrenaline.
RD17046Protective effects of polydatin on experimental testicular torsion and detorsion injury in rats
The notable pathophysiological event that occurs in testicular torsion–detorsion (T/D) is ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R), which lacks efficient clinical treatment. Herein we describe, for the first time, the protective effects of polydatin, a traditional Chinese medicine, against testicular T/D injury in the rat. Our findings may provide new clues for male infertility associated with testicular torsion.
RD16428Intracytoplasmic oxidative stress reverses epigenetic modifications in polycystic ovary syndrome
In PCOS, elevated levels of plasma androgens affects the quality of oocytes and ovulation rate, and causes anovulation in women of reproductive age. We studied the mechanism in a mouse model of PCOS, and showed that intracytoplasmic oxidative stress in oocyte via increase in histone acetylation and decrease in DNA methylation and histone dimethylation alters epigenetic modification. Consistently, mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 and histone deacetylase-1 was decreased with PCOS. There was a significant correlation between ROS production and increased histone acetylation. We concluded that antioxidant therapy in PCOS is a viable approach to reduce the adverse effects of epigenetic alterations.
RD16343Andrographolide disrupts meiotic maturation by blocking cytoskeletal reorganisation and decreases the fertilisation potential of mouse oocytes
Andrographolide should be prudently consumed by women attempting to conceive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of andrographolide on oocytes. The findings indicate that andrographolide may disrupt mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilisation potential by blocking cytoskeletal reorganisation. This study provides an important platform for understanding the potential adverse effects of andrographolide on female fertility.
RD16459Comparative analysis of granulosa cell gene expression in association with oocyte competence in FSH-stimulated Holstein cows
In cattle, a major limitation of the success of IVF is the developmental competence that oocytes acquire during ovarian stimulation. The aim of the present study was to better understand the follicular conditions associated higher versus lower embryo yields. We revealed that the level of follicular differentiation (timing) is the main cause of failure and provide new biomarkers to identify such follicular conditions to adapt the ovarian stimulation protocol to individual animals.
High embryo loss during early pregnancy in pigs is still an unresolved issue. Comparing the proteomic profile of the endometrium harvested from crucial stages of early pregnancy (Days 12–13 and 15–16) with the proteomic profile of tissue from corresponding days of the oestrous cycle revealed the presence of proteins unique for early pregnancy that are involved in adhesion, angiogenesis and cytoskeletal organization. The results of the present study may help us understand the causes of early pregnancy loss in pigs.
RD16455The egg coat zona pellucida 3 glycoprotein – evolution of its putative sperm-binding region in Old World murine rodents (Rodentia: Muridae)
Binding of spermatozoa to the egg coat is a key step in fertilisation and provides a mechanism for reproductive isolation and sexual selection. To test this theory we investigated the molecular evolution of the ZP3 gene and its encoded sperm-binding region in a diverse murine rodent group. Our analyses provides evidence for positive selection on the sperm-binding region in several murine lineages, but the nature of the selective force remains unresolved.
Endo-siRNAs play an important role in mouse oocyte meiosis but the function of endo-siRNAs in other species is unknown. In this study, we found that an endo-siRNA deficiency resulted in oocyte spindle abnormalities and apoptosis, suggesting that endo-siRNAs are indispensible for oocyte maturation in pigs. This study unequivocally demonstrates an essential function for endo-siRNAs in mammals.
Pannexins (Panx) are proteins that form functional single membrane channels that have not yet been described in dogs. The aim of the present study was to detect Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3 in frozen–thawed dog semen. All three Panx channels were present in dog spermatozoa and increased propidium iodide (PI) permeability in frozen–thawed dog spermatozoa, suggesting that the percentage of PI-positive spermatozoa used as an indicator of non-viable cells may lead to overestimation of non-viable cells.
RD16474Differential effects of high and low glucose concentrations during lipolysis-like conditions on bovine in vitro oocyte quality, metabolism and subsequent embryo development
Maternal metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and diabetes in women or a negative energy balance in dairy cows) are associated with altered metabolic profiles, which can impact oocyte quality and thus fertility. We showed that altered glucose can differentially affect oocyte quality in the presence of elevated free fatty acids. These results further highlight the importance of maternal metabolic health for fertility.
RD16442Supplementation of culture medium with L-carnitine improves the development and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced porcine embryos
Porcine embryos contain substantial amounts of lipid, with little known regarding its metabolic role during development. This study investigated the association of lipid metabolism with carbohydrate substrates in the culture medium and revealed positive effects of adding L-carnitine, a limiting co-factor required for lipolysis, on early cleavage and blastocyst quality. Supplementing medium with L-carnitine is a useful strategy to improve the success of porcine blastocyst vitrification.
RD16432Low doses of bisphenol A can impair postnatal testicular development directly, without affecting hormonal or oxidative stress levels
The peripubertal period is considered a critical stage of reproductive development and more vulnerable to the action of toxic agents, such as BPA, which can lead to impaired sexual development. We investigated the exposure to BPA during the peripubertal period and eEvidencing a reduction in the number of Sertoli cells, histopathological abnormalities and changes in sperm morphology. Therefore, BPA may silently impair testicular postnatal development in rats.
Sex-specific differences have been reported in most of the diseases. This review provides data on differential adaptation of male and female fetuses in utero in response to maternal nutritional, physiological and environmental insults resulting in sex-specific differences. Because sex differences are associated with fetal outcome and survival, it is of importance to study the underlying biological mechanisms to improve both pre-natal and neonatal care.
RD16235Endogenous lysophosphatidic acid participates in vascularisation and decidualisation at the maternal–fetal interface in the rat
Decidualisation and vascular remodelling are fundamental for placentation and pregnancy success. Disruption of endogenous lysophosphatidic acid signalling modified the development of uterine vessels with consequences in the formation of the decidua and placenta, compromising the growth of embryos. Defects in these mechanisms could appear as obstetric complications, like implantation failure, positioning lysophosphatidic acid as a regulatory key lipid at implantation.
RD16513Melatonin potentially acts directly on swine ovary by modulating granulosa cell function and angiogenesis
The reproductive effects of melatonin have been extensively studied, but its involvement in the local control of ovarian physiology has not yet been clarified. The present research, which was undertaken to study the effects of physiological levels of melatonin on the main parameters of swine granulosa cell function, documents that the hormone is involved in the modulation of ovarian follicle growth and development.
RD17012Sperm motility activation in the critically endangered booroolong frog: the effect of medium osmolality and phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Successful artificial fertilisation primarily depends on two characteristics of male quality: 1) the maintenance of high sperm viability during storage and 2) the effective activation of sperm motility. This study identified optimal conditions for sperm motility activation in the critically endangered booroolong frog. Results reported make a significant contribution to the growing field of amphibian reproduction technologies.
RD16320Steroid hormones interact with natriuretic peptide C to delay nuclear maturation, to maintain oocyte–cumulus communication and to improve the quality of in vitro-produced embryos in cattle
This study provides evidence that natriuretic peptide C and steroids interact to slow oocyte nuclear maturation and to enhance oocyte-cumulus communication in cattle. Moreover, it indicates that exposure of the cumulus–oocyte complex to physiological concentrations of these hormones is beneficial to oocyte developmental competence. Therefore, the dataset is of relevance for the progress of oocyte biology and for the improvement of in vitro maturation outcomes.
A combination of permeating and non-permeating cryoprotectants and freezing rates was used to successfully cryopreserve saltwater crocodile spermatozoa. Although glycerol concentrations >1.35 M had an inhibitory effect on motility before freezing, 0.68 M glycerol combined with 0.2 M sucrose and post-thaw washing of spermatozoa in capacitating media resulted in motility of between 12% and 14.2%, the highest ever recorded for this species.
This paper describes findings during a unique opportunity to monitor placental structure and function throughout pregnancy in the under-researched zebra. Zebras are more donkey-like than horse-like in placental structure, rate of fetal development and gestation length. The results highlight the retention of unique reproductive mechanisms across the Genus Equus despite many other evolutionary changes within the member species.
RD16289Successful chimera production in the Hungarian goose (Anser anser domestica) by intracardiac injection of blastodermal cells in 3-day-old embryos
The aim of this study was to develop a new genome preservation technique for goose species. According to our results, goose primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate between 69 and 84 h of development. The goose blastoderm contains PGCs and by isolating and injecting these blastodermal cells we were able to generate chimeras. Altogether, this method could contribute to the cryopreservation of this species.
RD17020Glutamine protects rabbit spermatozoa against oxidative stress via glutathione synthesis during cryopreservation
The addition of 20 mM glutamine to the freezing extender significantly improved post-thaw sperm motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity. The exposure of spermatozoa to glutamine enhanced their γ-GCS activity and GSH synthesis, while decreasing ROS accumulation, LPO and DNA damage. Therefore, glutamine protects spermatozoa against ROS-induced cryodamage by enhancing GSH synthesis.
RD16144Prostaglandin F2α–PTGFR signalling activation, growth factor expression and cell proliferation in bovine endometrial explants
The association between bovine endometrial growth and prostaglandin (PG) F2α–PGF2α receptor (PTGFR) signalling activation is unknown. In the present study, cell proliferation and the expression of growth factors essential for endometrial growth were upregulated by PGF2α-PTGFR signalling activation by fluprostenol in bovine endometrial explants in vitro. These results indicate that PGF2α-PTGFR signalling activation could be involved in endometrial growth.
RD16477Tissue-specific inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in the testes of mice by inducible lentiviral RNA interference causes male infertility
uPA shRNA lentivirus system induced by Dox inhibited the expression of uPA in TM4 cells. Through injecting the lentivirus into mice testis, we found that downregulation of uPA in mice testis decreased the fertility of male mice, which may be caused by a reduction in sperm motility. The inducible uPA shRNA system is safe and reversible to regulate male fertility.
RD16362Evaluation of SmartFlare probe applicability for verification of RNAs in early equine conceptuses, equine dermal fibroblast cells and trophoblastic vesicles
Live cell RNA imaging in mammalian embryos would represent a quantum leap in understanding cell differentiation and early embryonic development. Applicability of RNA imaging by SmartFlare technology was tested in equine embryos surrounded by an embryonic capsule and/or the zona pellucida, nude trophoblastic vesicles and fibroblast cell cultures. Encapsulated embryos block SmartFlare uptake, but stages surrounded by the zona pellucida only and nude vesicles incorporate the probes, leading to specific fluorescence suitable for tracing gene expression cascades necessary for further embryo development.
RD16426Effects of antifreeze glycoprotein 8 (AFGP8) supplementation during vitrification on the in vitro developmental capacity of expanded bovine blastocysts
Antifreeze glycoprotein 8 (AFGP8) supplementation during vitrification beneficially protects bovine blastocysts against chill-induced injury. AFGP8 supplementation during vitrification enhances the cryosurvival of bovine blastocysts. AFGP8 supplementation during vitrification improves the subsequent in vitro developmental capacity of bovine blastocysts.
RD16478Expression of protocadherin 11Yb (PCDH11Yb) in seminal germ cells is correlated with fertility status in men
Knowledge of molecular defects in spermatozoa becomes critical during assisted reproduction to treat male factor infertility. Herein we show that the absence or low expression of protocadherin 11Yb (PCDH11Yb) in spermatozoa is associated with male factor infertility. Profiling of a panel of differentially expressed sperm proteins, including PCDH11Yb, in men with infertility may be of diagnostic and therapeutic value in infertility management.
RD16383Localisation of stem cell factor, stanniocalcin-1, connective tissue growth factor and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor in the bovine uterus at the time of blastocyst formation
Limited information is available about the role of growth factors in very early embryonic development. This study demonstrates the presence of stem cell factor, stanniocalcin-1, connective tissue growth factor and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in bovine uterine fluid, endometrium and embryos during blastocyst formation. The results suggest a role for these proteins in early embryo development in cattle.
RD16186Identification of differentially expressed placental transcripts during multiple gestations in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.)
It is still unspecified if and how the number of embryos or fetal sex affect pregnancy outcome. The present study determined whether there are differences in transcriptome profiles of the beaver placenta as a result of fetal sex or multiplicity of gestation. The results indicate that the number of fetuses affects the expression profile in the subplacental transcriptome. Enhancement of transcriptome resources will improve our understanding of the pathways relevant to proper placental development and successful reproduction in general.
RD16302Polydatin improves the developmental competence of bovine embryos in vitro via induction of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)
Polydatin (PD) has antioxidant activity and is useful for embryo development in vitro. Supplementation of IVM medium with PD scavenged reactive oxygen species and improved embryo developmental competence via induction of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1).
RD16294Sperm gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) and its interaction with purinergic P2X2 receptors in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and male fertility
The mechanism underlying the non-genomic action of progesterone in sperm functions and related Ca2+ mobilisation remains elusive. Herein we report the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) in human and rodent spermatozoa and its involvement in mediating the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction through its interaction with purinergic P2X2 receptors. GABRD represents a novel progesterone receptor or modulator in sperm responsible for the progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx required for the acrosome reaction.
RD16333Restoration of immune and renal function in aged females by re-establishment of active ovarian function
Immune and renal function, both critical for reproductive success, were evaluated to determine if exposure of postreproductive female mice to young ovaries would influence these non-reproductive physiological functions. Postreproductive mice received new (60-day-old) ovaries at 12 months of age and were evaluated at 16 months of age. Age-related declines in immune and renal function in 16-month-old control mice were restored to levels found in 6-month-old mice by ovarian transplantation. Re-establishment of reproductive function in aged female mice positively influenced non-reproductive functions.
RD16473In vitro addition of docosahexaenoic acid improves the quality of cooled but not frozen–thawed stallion semen
Improvements in the quality of stallion semen are required to increase the success of artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the addition of docosahexaenoic acid to semen diluents on the quality of stallion semen. Docosahexaenoic acid increased spermatozoa motility and membrane fluidity in cooled semen and thus can be used to increase the quality of spermatozoa.
RD16327Gene-specific profiling of DNA methylation and mRNA expression in bovine oocytes derived from follicles of different size categories
The present study investigated DNA methylation profiles and mRNA expression of imprinted and non-imprinted candidate genes in bovine oocytes from antral follicles of three different size classes (≤2 mm, 3–5 mm, ≥6 mm) to unravel the epigenetic contribution to follicular and oocyte growth. We observed an increased number of aberrantly methylated alleles in bH19, bSNRPN and bDNMT3 Lo of oocytes from small antral follicles and an increased frequency of CpG sites with an unclear methylation status for DNMT3 Ls in large follicles. Results indicate that a follicle diameter of ~2 mm is critical for establishing DNA methylation profiles.
RD16193Microtubule stabilisers docetaxel and paclitaxel reduce spindle damage and maintain the developmental competence of in vitro-mature bovine oocytes during vitrification
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of paclitaxel (PT) and docetaxel (DT) in reducing spindle damage in bovine oocytes during vitrification. The important finding of the study was that pretreatment of bovine oocytes with 0.05 µM DT for 30 min before vitrification reduced spindle damage to a greater degree than pretreatment with 1.0 µM PT. This finding will be useful in improving oocyte cryopreservation in the future.
RD16233Extracellular-like matrices and leukaemia inhibitory factor for in vitro culture of human primordial follicles
The possibility of growing immature human ovarian follicles in laboratories will assist fertility restoration. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether growth of immature follicles can be promoted by using different culture surfaces and supplementation with a growth factor. It was unclear whether any of the culture surfaces had an advantage over the others. In addition, the growth factor did not promote growth. Further studies should test other culture surfaces and identify additional fluid supplements, so that an optimal system can be developed.
RD16283Poly(A)-binding proteins are required for translational regulation in vertebrate oocytes and early embryos
Poly(A)-binding proteins function in the timely regulation of gene expression during oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development in vertebrates. In this review, we comprehensively evaluate and discuss the expression patterns and particular functions of the embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1) genes, especially in mouse and human oocytes and early embryos.
RD16276Epigenetic changes of hepatic glucocorticoid receptor in sheep male offspring undernourished in utero
Evidence exists that early life nutritional insults can predispose to metabolic disorders, like Type 2 diabetes, for which excessive hepatic glucose production is a contributing factor. Maternal undernutrition alters the epigenetic status of the glucocorticoid receptor and increases the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of male offspring. Undernutrition in the womb programs long-lasting changes in specific gene expression that leads to persistent metabolic abnormalities.
RD16277Maternal obesity in the rat impairs male offspring aging of the testicular antioxidant defence system
Maternal obesity leads to premature aging of male offspring reproductive capacity and increases testes oxidative stress in male rat offspring. Our results show that maternal obesity modifies the antioxidant enzyme system in the testes of offspring, which, in turn, affects testicular physiological functions and leads to premature aging of male reproductive capacity.
Mitochondrial ferritin is an iron-storage protein highly expressed in human and mouse spermatozoa. This work showed that male mice, but not female, in which mitochondrial ferritin was genetically deleted have reduced fertility without significant alterations in sperm parameters. These data show that mitochondrial ferritin has a role in male fertility.
RD16198Ontogeny of clock and KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor (Kiss1) gene expression in the prepubertal mouse hypothalamus
Kisspeptin neurons in the brain are crucial for the hormone surge required for ovulation, but are established before puberty. This study examined kisspeptin and brain clock gene rhythms (known to restrict kisspeptin action) in young mice. The data show that the kisspeptin peak is not seen prior to puberty and there is incomplete development of clock gene rhythmicity at this time.
RD16284Intrafollicular oestradiol production, expression of the LH receptor (LHR) gene and its isoforms, and early follicular deviation in Bos indicus
In this study we investigated the expression of the LH receptor (LHR) gene during dominant follicle selection in Bos indicus cattle. The main finding was that the early deviation of the dominant follicle in this subspecies is driven by the differential expression of full-length LHR and its isoforms in small follicles. This finding will contribute to explaining the differences in ovarian physiology between B. indicus and Bos taurus.
RD16087Gel-coated tubes extend above-freezing storage of honey bee (Apis mellifera) semen to 439 days with production of fertilised offspring
Honey bees, which are vital agricultural pollinators, are at risk from numerous factors. The ability to artificially inseminate these species provides a means to strengthen them genetically by collecting semen from bees of different regions throughout the world and then inseminating bees at distant locations. Our study aimed to substantially improve the viability of spermatozoa between collection and insemination.
RD15476Prepartum maternal diets supplemented with oilseeds alter the fatty acid profile in bovine neonatal plasma possibly through reduced placental expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 and fatty acid translocase
Preferential transportation of essential fatty acids over non-essential fatty acids occurs from the mother to fetus in humans. However, little is known about placental transfer of fatty acids in the bovine. In the present study, prepartum dietary fat supplementation of cows reduced maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neonatal total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and total, fat possibly through reduced expression of certain placental fatty acid transporter genes.
RD16321Presence of vascular endothelial growth factor during the first half of IVM improves the meiotic and developmental competence of porcine oocytes from small follicles
Ovaries contain a large number of small follicles, but the meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes from these follicles is quite low. In the present study we demonstrated that the addition of 200 ng mL–1 vascular endothelial growth factor to the IVM medium increased the maturation rate of porcine oocytes from small follicles and that blastocyst formation following parthenogenetic activation also increased. These findings may contribute to efficient animal production and human assisted reproductive technology.
RD16181Modulation of adiponectin system expression in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy by prostaglandin E2 and F2?
Adiponectin is a hormone perceived as the link between energy metabolism and the reproductive system, but its interactions with factors responsible for regulation of uterine homeostasis during pregnancy remain unknown. Herein we demonstrated the effects of prostaglandins E2 and F2α on adiponectin and its receptors during early gestation. Recognition of these interactions will contribute to our understanding of the physiology of early pregnancy.
A diabetic pregnancy leads to distinct changes in maternal cholesterol metabolism, whereas embryonic cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol metabolism genes are not affected. The trophoblast : embryoblast cholesterol ratio suggests a higher metabolic activity of the embryoblast in diabetes. The findings of the present study imply independent and functional cholesterol metabolism in the mammalian embryo before implantation.
RD16382The current state of reproductive biology research in Australia and New Zealand: core themes from the Society for Reproductive Biology Annual Meeting, 2016
Reproductive science is central to our understanding of biology, translating to biological processes across many organ systems. The Society for Reproductive Biology conference review provides a focused summary of symposia at the 2016 annual meeting. The presentations highlight the breadth of reproductive research in Australia and New Zealand and its potential to affect the fertility and health of future generations.
RD16213Protein in culture and endogenous lipid interact with embryonic stages in vitro to alter calf birthweight after embryo vitrification and warming
Intracellular lipid is involved in long-term blastocyst competence to survive vitrification. We studied how protein removal affects bovine embryo development in vitro, lipid content and pregnancy outcomes, and found that calf weight at birth was altered depending on specific embryonic kinetics within vitrified–warmed embryos. Therefore, it is possible to modify calf phenotypes by introducing simple changes in culture conditions combined with selection of embryos.
RD16174Rosmarinic acid reverses the effects of metronidazole-induced infertility in male albino rats
Metronidazole, an essential medicine, adversely affects male fertility. We aimed at investigating the capability of Rosmarinic acid to reverse metranidazole induced male infertility. We found that certain doses of Rosmarinic acid could reverse metronidazole’s effects on sperm count, motility, morphology and testis ultrastructure. Our findings have great clinical implications where Rosmarinic acid might have a potential use in reversing Metronidazole induced male infertility.
RD15504Regulation of heat-inducible HSPA1A gene expression during maternal-to-embryo transition and in response to heat in in vitro-produced bovine embryos
Early mammalian embryos are sensitive to heat stress (HS) despite abundant oocytic iHSPA protein chaperones and mRNAs typically induced by stress. In this work, bovine HSPA1A gene transcription was detectable during embryo genome activation but induced by HS only after this stage, which coincides with better embryonic tolerance. Absence of stress-induced gene expression may therefore contribute to embryo sensitivity.
RD16297Effect of nutritionally induced hyperlipidaemia on in vitro bovine embryo quality depends on the type of major fatty acid in the diet
Hyperlipidemia associated with unbalanced diet and obesity is directly linked with reduced fertility. This study shows that substituting saturated fat with omega-3 fat in high caloric diets can alleviate detrimental effects of hyperlipidemic serum on bovine early embryo development and quality in vitro. This suggests that dietary manipulation of serum fatty acid profile may enhance fertility in patients with metabolic disorders.
The deleterious effects of heat stress on fertility are more pronounced in dairy cows than beef cows. The transcriptome profile in Nelore and Holstein oocytes subjected to heat shock during IVM and the mRNA abundance of selected genes in cumulus cells were determined. The analyses indicated that the deficiency in dairy cattle in terms of cellular protection against heat stress is regulated at the post-transcriptional level.
RD15535Sleep restriction in Wistar rats impairs epididymal postnatal development and sperm motility in association with oxidative stress
Sleep alterations are a public health problem worldwide that affect adolescents during puberty because of early school hours and interactive activities. In the present study, sleep restriction during peripuberty in rats affected epididymal postnatal development and sperm motility, in association with oxidative stress and a decrease in the epithelial compartment in the cauda epididymidis. The results of this study suggest a possibility for improving fertility after sleep restriction.
RD16223Effect and possible mechanisms of melatonin treatment on the quality and developmental potential of aged bovine oocytes
This research expands our understanding of the regulators that delay oocyte aging. Treatment of aged oocytes with exogenous melatonin improves oocyte quality, rearranges the cytoskeleton and improves developmental capacity. Melatonin is a good agent for delaying oocyte aging in vitro and preventing poor developmental competence of bovine oocytes in assisted reproductive technologies.
RD16183Induced sub-lethal oxidative damage affects osmotic tolerance and cryosurvival of spermatozoa
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage. The aim of this study was to establish whether sub-lethal oxidative damage negatively affects cryosurvival and pre-freeze sperm osmotic tolerance. Generation of defined levels of intracellular ROS can be used for testing strategies designed to counteract oxidative damage.
RD16310Reproductive dysfunction after mercury exposure at low levels: evidence for a role of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 1 and GPx4 in male rats
Mercury has been identified as a risk factor for declines in sperm quality and infertility in humans. The present study delves further into the mechanisms of action of mercury, showing a role for glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 1 and GPx4 in the reproductive toxicity of mercury. The involvement of the glutathione system highlights this antioxidant system as a potential target of mercury after its accumulation in reproductive organs.
RD16037Ovariectomy increases the phenotypic plasticity of the female prostate epithelium in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)
After hormonal deprivation the female gerbil prostate undergoes several morphophysiological changes. This work identified and characterised the cellular heterogeneity of the female prostate epithelium in normal conditions and after ovariectomy. Secretory cells of the female prostate are not morphologically and functionally uniform, presenting a phenotypical plasticity according to the hormonal environment in which they operate.
RD16280Spatiotemporal expression profile of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration
The current literature does not provide a comprehensive profile of the factors involved in placental development in rats during intrauterine trophoblast migration. In this study we evaluated the gene and/or protein expression of several placental factors during the second half of pregnancy in rats and demonstrated that the expression of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators is variable and depends on the stage of trophoblast migration. These changes in the expression profile are probably related to alterations in placental morphogenesis and function.
Infusion of the ovine uterus with hyaluronan (HA) during the pre-attachment period changes the expression of some adhesion markers at the embryo–maternal interface, resulting in reduced endometrial receptivity and failure of embryo attachment. In contrast, local inhibition of HA production in the uterus enhances embryo attachment.
RD16200Non-surgical sterilisation methods may offer a sustainable solution to feral horse (Equus caballus) overpopulation
Culling feral horses is currently met with public criticism, which has created an urgent need to develop new methods of population control. Delivery of a contraceptive agent that causes sterility, without the need for surgery, is currently under investigation. These novel techniques may provide a sustainable and effective alternative for feral horse control.
RD15553In vivo and in vitro maturation of rabbit oocytes differently affects the gene expression profile, mitochondrial distribution, apoptosis and early embryo development
Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in oocyte competence during rabbit in vivo and in vitro maturation is necessary to improve IVM systems in these species. This study showed for the first time that gene expression profile of in vivo-matured rabbit COCs is different from that of IVM COCs and these changes are clearly accompanied by stage-specific cytoplasmic remodelling of mitochondria, a lower rate of apoptosis of in vivo-matured CCs and better early embryo development, indicating that oocyte quality is compromised during IVM.
RD16063Proliferation and apoptosis processes in the seasonal testicular development of the wild Daurian ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt, 1844)
Male seasonal breeders show synchronised cycles of testicular growth and involution throughout the breeding cycle. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory role of cell proliferation and apoptosis in this dynamic testicular development. The study demonstrates, for the first time, that both cell proliferation and apoptosis are stimulated during the prehibernation period in wild Daurian ground squirrels. These findings advance our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of seasonal reproduction.
RD16135Fish oil and wheat-germ oil supplementation restores ovarian function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats
Diabetes has a profound impact on women’s reproductive health. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of fish oil and wheat-germ oil supplementation on ovarian function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These natural supplements counteracted oxidative stress and inflammation induced by diabetes and regained ovarian function by increasing FSH, E2, LH and AMH levels and restoring follicle counts.
Reports of the effects of birthweight on testicular development and implication for sperm production in boars are scarce. These effects were investigated in this study. It seems that high birthweight boars have the potential to produce more spermatozoa and semen doses per ejaculate. Hence, the selection of those boars would be predictive of better lifetime productivity in the boar stud.
RD16269Sperm antioxidant defences decrease during epididymal transit from caput to cauda in parallel with increases in epididymal fluid in the goat (Capra hircus)
The antioxidant defences of epididymal fluid and spermatozoa are modulated from the caput to cauda epididymidis in a region-specific manner in the goat (Capra hircus), and loss of some of the antioxidant enzymes from spermatozoa during their epididymal transit is compensated for through a simultaneous increase in the expression and/or activity of these enzymes in the epididymal fluid of the respective segments.
Mouse oocyte maturation is a unique asymmetric division and a lot of polarity proteins may play vital roles during this progress. Our study described an evolutionarily conserved polarity protein Discs-large homologue 1 becomes highly polarized by associating with cytoskeleton and lose-of-function of Dlg1 compromises oocyte maturation. It may provide a new theoretic framework for mammalian meiosis research.
RD16238Imprinted and DNA methyltransferase gene expression in the endometrium during the pre- and peri-implantation period in cattle
A comprehensive understanding of biological processes in the endometrium is vital for identifying the key factors required for successful embryo recognition and implantation. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression of imprinted genes and DNA methyltransferases in the endometrium of cyclic and pregnant beef heifers. Results from this investigation provide new evidence that, in addition to their role in fetal and placental development, imprinted genes and DNA methyltransferases may have a role in establishing uterine receptivity.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog down regulation by miR-661 impairs human endometrial epithelial cell adhesive capacity
Production of inbred offspring by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of oocytes from juvenile female mice
Development of fresh and vitrified agoutis’ ovarian tissue after xenografting to ovariectomized SCID mice
Can resveratrol attenuate the testicular damage in neonatal and adult rats exposed to TCDD during the gestational period?
Administration of a propylene glycol feeding supplement to feed-restricted heifers modifies follicular fluid and gene expression profiles in cumulus-oocyte complexes and embryos
Changes in urinary androgen concentration indicate that male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) respond to impending female estrus during and outside of the typical spring breeding season
Impact of equine assisted reproductive technologies (standard embryo transfer or ICSI/in vitro culture/embryo transfer) on placenta and foal morphometry and placental gene expression
In vitro growth and development of isolated secondary follicles from vitrified caprine ovarian cortex
Effect of lemon essential oil (Citrus limon) and its major components (Limonene (R)-(+) and Limonene (S)-(-)) on cryopreservation of bull spermatozoid
Time within reproductive season, but not age or inbreeding coefficient, influences seminal and sperm quality in the whooping crane (Grus americana)
The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads in the last 60 days from papers published on the CSIRO PUBLISHING website within the last 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 28 (10)K. D. Sinclair, K. M. D. Rutherford, J. M. Wallace, J. M. Brameld, R. Stöger, R. Alberio, D. Sweetman, D. S. Gardner, V. E. A. Perry, C. L. Adam, C. J. Ashworth, J. E. Robinson, C. M. Dwyer
Effects of freezing and activation on membrane quality and DNA damage in Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis spermatozoaReproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)S. Morrow, J. Gosálvez, C. López-Fernández, F. Arroyo, W. V. Holt, M. J. Guille
Reproduction, Fertility and Development (Online Early)Wanxin Liu, Qi Zhao, Shanhua Piao, Chunsheng Wang, Qingran Kong, Tiezhu An
Unique oestrogen receptor ligand-binding domain sequence of native parrots: a possible link between phytoestrogens and breeding successReproduction, Fertility and Development (Online Early)Catherine E. J. Davis, Adrian H. Bibby, Kevin M. Buckley, Kenneth P. McNatty, Janet L. Pitman
A combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and FSH promotes proliferation of prepubertal bovine Sertoli cells isolated and cultured in vitroReproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)A. Dance, J. Kastelic, J. Thundathil
In vitro oocyte maturation in a medium containing reduced sodium chloride improves the developmental competence of pig oocytes after parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transferReproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)Joohyeong Lee, Hanna Lee, Yongjin Lee, Bola Park, Fazle Elahi, Seung Tae Lee, Choon-Keun Park, Sang-Hwan Hyun, Eunsong Lee
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (1)Y. S. Bogliotti, J. Wu, M. Vilariño, K. Suzuki, J. C. Belmonte, P. J. Ross
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (1)Dawit Tesfaye, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Samuel Gebremedhn, Md Mahmodul Hasan Sohel, Hari Om Pandey, Michael Hoelker, Karl Schellander
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)D. R. Câmara, J. P. Kastelic, J. C. Thundathil
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (1)
Steroid hormones interact with natriuretic peptide C to delay nuclear maturation, to maintain oocyte–cumulus communication and to improve the quality of in vitro-produced embryos in cattleReproduction, Fertility and Development (Online Early)Ana Caroline S. Soares, Valentina Lodde, Rodrigo G. Barros, Christopher A. Price, Alberto M. Luciano, José Buratini
Potential risks to offspring of intrauterine exposure to maternal age-related obstetric complicationsReproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)Juan J. Tarín, Miguel A. García-Pérez, Antonio Cano
Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 on cross-bred Bos indicus cattle germinal vesicle oocytes exposed to heat shockReproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (7)Rafaela S. Lima, Pedro H. B. Risolia, Jéssica Ispada, Mayra E. O. A. Assumpção, José A. Visintin, Cássia Orlandi, Fabíola F. Paula-Lopes
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)Kátia R. L. Schwarz, Ramon Cesar Botigelli, Maite Del Collado, Fernanda Cavallari de Castro, Hugo Fernandes, Daniela M. Paschoal, Cláudia Lima Verde Leal
Periconceptional undernutrition affects in utero methyltransferase expression and steroid hormone concentrations in uterine flushings and blood plasma during the peri-implantation period in domestic pigsReproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)A. Franczak, K. Zglejc, E. Waszkiewicz, B. Wojciechowicz, M. Martyniak, W. Sobotka, S. Okrasa, G. Kotwica
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)R. Pasquariello, B. Fernandez-Fuertes, F. Strozzi, F. Pizzi, R. Mazza, P. Lonergan, F. Gandolfi, J. L. Williams
Circumventing the natural, frequent oestrogen waves of the female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) using oral progestin (Altrenogest)Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (8)Adrienne E. Crosier, Pierre Comizzoli, Diana C. Koester, David E. Wildt
Microtubule stabilisers docetaxel and paclitaxel reduce spindle damage and maintain the developmental competence of in vitro-mature bovine oocytes during vitrificationReproduction, Fertility and Development (Online Early)Jakkhaphan Pitchayapipatkul, Tamás Somfai, Satoko Matoba, Rangsan Parnpai, Takashi Nagai, Masaya Geshi, Thevin Vongpralub
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29 (1)T. E. Spencer, N. Forde, P. Lonergan
Reproduction, Fertility and Development (Online Early)Justyna Kolakowska, Serhiy Souchelnytskyi, Ravi Kanth Rao Saini, Anita Franczak