Pacific Conservation Biology
Volume 23 Number 1 2017
The management of predators requires balance between conservation and management aims. Fraser Island is an example where lethal control is used to manage human–dingo conflict. It is posited that traditional lethal control management strategies result in social instability of predator populations that may increase conflict.
In New Zealand, cats are a contentious topic – considered valued companion animals by some and introduced pests by others. This paper reviews current knowledge about domestic cats in urban New Zealand and makes suggestions for future research which may underpin future cat management legislation.
PC15029Prevalence of interactions between Hawaiian monk seals (Nemonachus schauinslandi) and nearshore fisheries in the main Hawaiian Islands
We determine the prevalence and characteristics of interactions between the Hawaiian monk seal (Nemonachus schauinslandi) and nearshore fisheries in the main Hawaiian Islands and examine impacts to the subpopulation
PC16011Mapping foraging habitat for migratory shorebirds in their Australian non-breeding grounds and prioritising sites for conservation and management
This study demonstrates methods to map important shorebird habitat using GIS to provide coastal zone managers a tool to enhance consideration of shorebird habitat within the management framework. Habitat values were assessed against a range of criteria and sites considered of high value that were heavily disturbed were prioritised for management.
This paper investigates the effect of deployment time, camera array size and number of sites on detection of saxicoline mammals and varanid species in northern Australia and presents an analysis method for optimising decisions about how a limited number of cameras should be deployed across sites.
PC16025Introduced social bees reduce nectar availability during the breeding season of the swift parrot (Lathamus discolor)
The Swift Parrot Recovery Plan includes competition for nectar and pollen from introduced social bees as a threatening process. Here, we present the strongest evidence yet to support this theory. Bees consumed most nectar from the species of trees that are important to swift parrots during their breeding season.
PC16004Changes in the distribution of reports of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) after 16 years of local conservation initiatives at Gunnedah, north-west New South Wales, Australia
Revegetation for salinity control in Gunnedah Shire during the 1990s provided the opportunity to enhance koala habitat and increase local awareness. Surveys 16 years apart show that koalas became more widely reported in the agricultural areas of the shire, and the urban areas became the core of their reported distribution.
PC16013Floristics, dominance and diversity within the threatened Themeda grassy headlands of the North Coast Bioregion of New South Wales
In Themeda-dominated assemblages increasing biomass depth and a reduction in macropod grazing impact reduced plot species and trait richness and diversity. This was associated with a shift in assemblage identity. All three Themeda assemblages should be maintained in order to promote landscape diversity. Frequent fire is likely to cause homogenisation and loss of important components including listed threatened taxa.
We used interviews with villagers of different generations to quantify the changes in commercially important shellfish, including giant clams (Tridacna spp.) in Fiji. Our results show that older generations remembered a more abundant ecosystem as well as larger clams. Younger generations however did not perceive this shift in an ecological baseline.
PC16023Habitat use by grey-crowned babbler, Pomatostomus temporalis, in urban and peri-urban environments
If key habitat structures are maintained, native fauna species may still inhabit urban environments after habitat loss. Grey-crowned babblers in Dubbo NSW behaved similarly in urban and peri-urban areas with small differences based on habitat availability. Managers of urban parklands should provide foraging substrates for a variety of woodland bird species.
PC16019An isolated population of the southern scrub-robin (Drymodes brunneopygia) in the Great Victoria Desert
This paper documents an isolated and fragmented population of the southern scrub-robin at the arid extreme of the species’ range. We discuss the species’ occurrence, habitat and vulnerability in the Great Victoria Desert.
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We summarise the major flaws retained in the Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016 as it progressed from Bill to Act. We also suggest requirements of future legislation and discuss the importance of effective conservation legislation in the 21st century.
PC17002Predators and genetic fitness: key threatening factors for the conservation of a bettong species
We developed a population viability model for the woylie (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi), which identified predation by introduced animals and its interaction with reduced fitness (for example due to inbreeding depression or a disease) as main threatening processes. We anticipated that the developed framework will facilitate similar work in other bettong species.
We combined spatial data into a multicriteria model to conduct a biological survey gap analysis for the public forest estate in south-west Western Australia. The model showed that the south-western parts of the study area were relatively well surveyed while eastern parts were relatively poorly surveyed, probably due to habitat loss where the forest adjoins the extensively cleared Western Australian wheatbelt.
Sustained yield is the amount or number of a resource that can be harvested without decline. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of human society without compromising future generations’ ability to meet their needs. This paper: (1) describes sustained yield and sustainable development, and (2) draws some conclusions about the two concepts, including their relationship, or lack thereof.
This essay features lessons from attempts across Melanesia at establishing protected areas, conservation agreements, ecotourism initiatives and research-action arenas that showcase challenges and conflicts when worldviews collide and opportunities that arise for improving conservation effectiveness when mutual expectations are clarified early on during planning processes.
PC16035Ecologists, economics and politics: problems and contradictions in applying neoliberal ideology to nature conservation in Australia
Neoliberal ideology centres on the transfer of State responsibility over the provision of public goods, including the environment, to the global free-market market under the dual premises of increased allocation efficiency and maximised individual utility. Approaches to wetland conservation and management in Australia have, over the past three decades, been increasingly dominated by the neoliberal value system. In this paper we examine the limitations of two pillars of neoliberal orthodoxy – (1) monetary valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and (2) the provision of complementary areas to offset losses of high-quality habitat – to the management and conservation of wetlands in south-eastern Australia.
The effect of feral cats on diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island was examined during 2006–12. Although selection of food items by foxes appeared to shift when cats were removed, changes in diet patterns probably were more influenced by variation in prey availability associated with annual precipitation.
PC16036Histological analysis of hatchlings of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, from water impoundments reveals fundamental flaws in development
Anomalies in young of the Australian lungfish are now found in altered environments but not in fish collected from natural rivers. The cause of abnormal development is the production of deficient eggs by adult lungfish that are not well fed. This has serious implications for survival of the species, since most lungfish habitats are now altered.
Using high-throughput sequencing, 68 Phytophthora species were detected from eDNA extracted from 640 soils samples collected from native ecosystems around Australia. Many of the species detected have a global distribution, but 30% were identified as potentially new taxa. Australian databases are biased toward Phytophthora species common in agriculture, and the additional records provided valuable baseline for future studies.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
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