Functional Plant Biology
Volume 44 Number 2 2017
Growth is an issue of central importance in plant physiology and agriculture. Growing cells expand by generating an internal hydrostatic pressure – the turgor. A thorough revision of over 40 years of research suggests that turgor results from a steady-state between passive water uptake via aquaporins driven by an osmotic gradient (which is generally accepted) and by a secondary active water secretion, including a cotransport of water and solutes.
FP15289Aluminium-inhibited NO3– uptake is related to Al-increased H2O2 content and Al-decreased plasma membrane ATPase activity in the root tips of Al-sensitive black soybean
The study on the effect of Al stress on the absorption of NO3– N in soybean could provide a scientific basis for N management in acid soil. The results showed that Al stress could significantly inhibit the absorption of NO3–N in soybean; however, Mg and ascorbic acid could reduce the inhibition of NO3– N uptake by Al stress. The inhibition of nitrate uptake in soybean in acid soil is expected to be alleviated by applying Mg and ascorbic acid.
FP16180The seed-borne Southern bean mosaic virus hinders the early events of nodulation and growth in Rhizobium-inoculated Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Seed-transmitted viruses are a major threat in tropical and subtropical fields, hindering the benefits of applying Rhizobium inoculants in legume crops. We developed an easy, 100% effective protocol to promote the infection of germinating seeds with a legume virus. This protocol will enable further research beyond our findings with Phaseolus vulgaris L. for improving cultural practices to reduce the incidence of viruses in tropical and subtropical legume crops.
FP16082Effects of drought stress on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat species differing in ploidy level
Modern polyploid wheat has diploid and tetraploid ancestors that may harbour beneficial drought resistance genes lost during domestication and subsequent breeding. We compared the morpho-physiological and biochemical responses to drought of eight accessions of wild and domesticated wheat differing in ploidy level, and show that modern polyploid wheat invests less biomass in roots and more in leaves and reproductive organs, particularly under drought.
FP16154Genotypic variation in soil water use and root distribution and their implications for drought tolerance in chickpea
Knowledge on soil water use pattern is critical for adapting chickpea to drought. Drought reduced surface root distribution while enhancing the deeper ones Water use from 15 to 30 and 90 to 120 cm soil depths were critical for best adaptation.
FP16263Assessing the suitability of various screening methods as a proxy for drought tolerance in barley
In a search for a convenient and rapid screening method for drought tolerance, barley genotypes were evaluated for a range of physiological and agronomical measures. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence Fv/Fm ratio and the relative root growth rate of polyethylene glycol-treated seedlings were found to be the most suitable proxies for quantifying drought tolerance.
FP16189Warming alters the positive impact of elevated CO2 concentration on cotton growth and physiology during soil water deficit
Alterations in climate factors such as rising CO2 concentration ([CO2]), warming and reduced precipitation may have significant impacts on plant physiology and growth. Cotton was grown in the glasshouse at two [CO2] treatments (CA, 400 µL L–1; CE, 640 µL L–1) and two temperature treatments (TA, 28°C :17°C day : night; TE, 32°C : 21°C day : night), and subjected to two progressive water deficit cycles, with a 5-day recovery period between the water deficit periods. CE may provide positive growth and physiological benefits to cotton under TA if sufficient water is available but CE will not mitigate the negative effects of rising temperature on cotton growth and physiology in future environments.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
Although plant proteases of the phytaspase family are important contributors to stress-induced plant cell death, phytaspase of a classical model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has escaped identification thus far. We identified the Arabidopsis phytaspase-encoding gene and characterised the recombinant enzyme. Substrate specificity and properties of the Arabidopsis phytaspase display both important similarities with and distinctions from the already characterised phytaspases.
It has been proposed that the densities at which veins and stomata are present in leaves are co-ordinated by epidermal cell expansion. However, we found that vein density is not causally linked to epidermal cell size. This suggests that adaptation favours synchronised changes to cell size in different leaf tissues to coordinate vein and stomatal density, and thus, maintain a balance between water supply and transpirational demand.
FP16214Photoprotective and antioxidative mechanisms against oxidative damage in Fargesia rufa subjected to drought and salinity
Drought and salinity adversely affect plant productivity. Here, we investigated the photoprotective and antioxidative mechanisms against oxidative damage in bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi) subjected to isolated and combined drought and salinity stresses. Relative to salinity and combined stress, F. rufa under drought exhibit highly efficient mechanism to prevent oxidative damage, which allows accelerated recovery of photosynthetic performance once the stress is removed.
FP16266Active defence by an Australian native host, Lomandra longifolia, provides resistance against Phytophthora cinnamomi
The plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi poses a major threat to a wide range of host plants. This study examined resistance in Lomandra longifolia (an Australian native plant) and found high levels of resistance to infection, along with the identification of several resistant-related components. Understanding L. longifolia’s resistance to the pathogen may help develop strategies for protection of more susceptible species.
FP16202Phenotyping of plants in competitive but controlled environments: a study of drought response in transgenic wheat
Drought as a limiting factor for plant growth, development and reproduction remains a major challenge for Australian breeders and growers, and precise phenotyping techniques are needed urgently. We developed a platform where transgenic wheat plants can be grown and tested in competition and under conditions similar to those in a field situation. New imaging techniques developed for non-destructive plant growth characterisation are promising and can be used for a range of image-based plant phenotyping analyses.
FP16272Evaluation of root porosity and radial oxygen loss of disomic addition lines of Hordeum marinum in wheat
Hordeum marinum is a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and has been hybridised with wheat to produce amphiploids containing the genomes from both species. We found that although an amphiploid had improved root aeration traits compared with the wheat parent, the addition lines containing chromosome pairs did not have these traits of greater root porosity or a barrier to radial O2 loss. Thus, these root aeration traits were not expressed in any of the six of the seven possible chromosome addition lines, hampering efforts to use H. marinum as a donor of waterlogging tolerance to wheat.
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signalling in plants is crucial for many physiological processes. Recent analytical and genomic developments now allow detailed studies into the biochemistry and physiological role of cGMP in plants, and the latest findings are reviewed in this article.
FP16194Distinct growth and physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions to drought stress and their detection using spectral reflectance and thermal imaging
Within this study we have demonstrated that the physiological tolerance to drought in certain Arabidopsis thaliana accessions is closely associated with the reduction of leaf area, and vice versa. This means that the ability to reduce leaf area under drought stress may represent a suitable indicator of drought tolerance. We also proved that the physiological response of plants to drought can be reliably monitored with non-invasive methods of thermal imaging and spectral reflectance.
Large conductance SV/TPC1 channels are ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in the vacuolar membranes of higher plants. They are unique established Ca2+-permeable channels in vacuoles, but their activity is strongly negatively controlled, so that they were believed to be inactive or to act only locally. Recent evidence suggests the key role of SV/TPC1 channels in the long-distance Ca2+ signalling.
FP16151Elevated temperature increases in planta expression levels of virulence related genes in Magnaporthe oryzae and compromises resistance in Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare
Elevated temperature is often predicted to lead to increased susceptibility of plants to pathogens, but little information is available on pathogen transcriptome changes associated with pathogenicity at high temperature. Using Magnaporthe oryzae and rice as a model, we have shown that pre-exposure of plants to heat promoted pathogen proliferation, increased effector encoding transcripts in planta, and accelerated plant tissue necrosis. Thus, increasing temperatures may result in an increase in disease by facilitating rapid colonisation of plant tissues by the pathogen.
Sub-optimal environmental conditions for crops are called abiotic stress; cold is one of the main stresses for rice. In this study, the RNAseq technique was used to identify genes expressed in response to cold in rice germination. The results indicated that a large number of genes were expressed in the sensitive genotype and few genes in the tolerant genotype. We have identified possible genes that are responsible for cold tolerance in rice plants of the cold tolerant cultivar.
FP16010Comparison of isohydric and anisohydric Vitis vinifera L. cultivars reveals a fine balance between hydraulic resistances, driving forces and transpiration in ripening berries
Regulation of water transport in fruits like grape clusters is pivotal for fruit development and ripening. Comparing two contrasting grape varieties showed that the differing hydraulic behaviour observed in vegetative structures also extends to their fruit. The previously observed decline in xylem water uptake into ripening berries could be explained by a decrease in the suction of the fruit rather than increasing hydraulic resistance.
Terminal drought reduced grain yield in wheat by affecting grain filling. To expose the shallow part of the root system to soil dryness while the roots at depth have access to water, watering was provided only to the bottom 30 cm of the pot from anthesis. The wheat genotype that showed a higher degree of stomatal closure limited post-anthesis water uptake at depth. Grain yield was related to post-anthesis water use.
FP16261Two native types of phytochrome A, phyAʹ and phyAʺ, differ by the state of phosphorylation at the N-terminus as revealed by fluorescence investigations of the Ser/Ala mutant of rice phyA expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis
Plants adapt to environmental light conditions with the use of the sophisticated phytochrome system. In this work, polymorphism of its major component – phytochrome A– was investigated. With the use of transgenic Arabidopsis and fluorescence technique, it was shown that two molecular types of the photoreceptor differ by the state of phosphorylation and their existence accounts for its complex functions.
Fog water is known to offset plant water stress during the dry season in Mediterranean ecosystems; however, the underlying mechanisms of fog water use and its impact on physiological function has yet to be elucidated for many species. We assessed the impact of fog drip and fog immersion on the physiological function of a drought-sensitive pine species restricted to the fog belt of coastal California. Fog drip to the soil is the primary mechanism by which fog water inputs relieve stress and enhance instantaneous carbon gain of Bishop pine saplings, although foliar absorption is also a viable mechanism by which Bishop pines use fog water. Our results are important for understanding how the carbon and water relations of foggy forests may be impacted by potential changes in the fog regime.
FP16222The half-life of the cytochrome bf complex in leaves of pea plants after transfer from moderately-high growth light to low light
The cytochrome (cyt) bf complex content is the main factor limiting photosynthetic electron transport capacity, but the cyt bf life-time is not well characterised. We found that upon transferring high-light-grown pea plants to low light, the cyt f content decreased with a half-life of 1.7 days, even with the re-introduction of high light during part of the low-light photoperiod. It appears that mature leaves could not make new cyt bf complex, which was inevitably partially lost in low light.
FP16242Rapid changes in root HvPIP2;2 aquaporins abundance and ABA concentration are required to enhance root hydraulic conductivity and maintain leaf water potential in response to increased evaporative demand
The ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34 and wild type (WT) were exposed to air warming. Although transpiration rate of both genotypes increased, leaf water potential decreased in the mutant but was maintained in WT plants. Only WT plants showed increased root ABA accumulation, which increased root hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin abundance, which seems important in maintaining leaf hydration.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Studies of cytokinin receptorâphosphotransmitter interaction provide evidences for the initiation of cytokinin signaling in the endoplasmic reticulum
In vivo inhibition of polyamine oxidase by a spermine analogue, MDL-72,527 in tomato exposed to sublethal and lethal salt stress
Spatial distribution of organelles in leaf cells and soybean root nodules revealed by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy
The inhibition of photosynthesis under water deficit conditions is more severe in flecked than uniform irradiance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants
Formation mechanisms of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts, and factors determining the signaling by hydrogen peroxide
The role of ion disequilibrium in induction of root cell death and autophagy by environmental stresses
Parameters of electrical signals and photosynthetic responses induced by them in pea seedlings depend on the nature of stimulus
Nitrate but not ammonium increases ethylene production and aerenchyma formation in roots of lowland rice plant under water stress
Mechanisms of cytosolic calcium elevation in plant cells: the role of plasma membrane ion channels, calcium extrusion systems and NADPH oxidase-mediated âROS-Ca2+ Hubâ
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Comparison of ground cover estimates from experiment plots in cotton, sorghum and sugarcane based on images and ortho-mosaics captured by UAVFunctional Plant Biology 44 (1)Tao Duan, Bangyou Zheng, Wei Guo, Seishi Ninomiya, Yan Guo, Scott C. Chapman
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GrowScreen-PaGe, a non-invasive, high-throughput phenotyping system based on germination paper to quantify crop phenotypic diversity and plasticity of root traits under varying nutrient supplyFunctional Plant Biology 44 (1)Tania Gioia, Anna Galinski, Henning Lenz, Carmen Müller, Jonas Lentz, Kathrin Heinz, Christoph Briese, Alexander Putz, Fabio Fiorani, Michelle Watt, Ulrich Schurr, Kerstin A. Nagel
Functional Plant Biology 44 (1)Norbert Kirchgessner, Frank Liebisch, Kang Yu, Johannes Pfeifer, Michael Friedli, Andreas Hund, Achim Walter
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Root growth and anchorage by transplanted ‘Tifgreen’ (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) turfgrassFunctional Plant Biology 41 (3)Jeffrey S. Amthor, James B. Beard
Functional Plant Biology 44 (1)Lucia M. Acosta-Gamboa, Suxing Liu, Erin Langley, Zachary Campbell, Norma Castro-Guerrero, David Mendoza-Cozatl, Argelia Lorence
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Drought resistance and soil water extraction of a perennial C4 grass: contributions of root and rhizome traitsFunctional Plant Biology 41 (5)Yi Zhou, Christopher J. Lambrides, Shu Fukai
The seed-borne Southern bean mosaic virus hinders the early events of nodulation and growth in Rhizobium-inoculated Phaseolus vulgaris L.Functional Plant Biology 44 (2)Mariadaniela López, Nacira Muñoz, Hernan Ramiro Lascano, María Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral
Genotypic variation in soil water use and root distribution and their implications for drought tolerance in chickpeaFunctional Plant Biology 44 (2)Ramamoorthy Purushothaman, Lakshmanan Krishnamurthy, Hari D. Upadhyaya, Vincent Vadez, Rajeev K. Varshney
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Truncation of grain filling in wheat (Triticum aestivum) triggered by brief heat stress during early grain filling: association with senescence responses and reductions in stem reservesFunctional Plant Biology 43 (10)Hamid Shirdelmoghanloo, Daniel Cozzolino, Iman Lohraseb, Nicholas C. Collins
Responses of woody Cerrado species to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and water stress: gains and lossesFunctional Plant Biology 43 (12)João Paulo Souza, Nayara M. J. Melo, Eduardo G. Pereira, Alessandro D. Halfeld, Ingrid N. Gomes, Carlos Henrique B. A. Prado
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Heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in the MeJA regulated ion flux and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thalianaFunctional Plant Biology 42 (2)Suli Yan, Shuitian Luo, Shanshan Dong, Ting Zhang, Jingru Sun, Ningning Wang, Hongjun Yao, Yingbai Shen