Volume 48 Number 1 2017
RESEARCH FRONT: Geophysical Surveys after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake
EG16099S-wave reflection and surface wave surveys in liquefaction affected areas: a case study of the Hinode area, Itako, Ibaraki, Japan
We performed surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys to investigate the Hinode area of Itako, Ibaraki, Japan. This area suffered serious liquefaction damage during the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using subsurface boundaries imaged by the reflection surveys and the Vs structures obtained by surface wave analyses, we delineated the layer in which liquefaction occurred.
EG16113Shallow subsurface structure estimated from dense aftershock records and microtremor observations in Furukawa district, Miyagi, Japan
Severe residential damage in the Furukawa district, Miyagi, Japan, occurred during the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011. We model the shallow subsurface structure based on aftershock records from a dense seismometer network and results of microtremor observations. Site amplifications estimated from the model explain the damage distribution well.
EG16137A case study of liquefaction risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer using CPT and electric resistivity data in the Hinode area, Itako City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan
The Hinode area of Itako City in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, suffered severe liquefaction damage in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has carried out numerous investigations in the area. We have conducted risk analysis using cone penetration testing and electric resistivity data. The distribution of the risk estimated from both data sets is in agreement with the distribution of actual damage.
EG15013Initialising reservoir models for history matching using pre-production 3D seismic data: constraining methods and uncertainties
A fundamental step in reservoir characterisation and modelling is the preconditioning of the initial reservoir model to honour both the geological knowledge and seismic data. In this paper, we analyse the issues that have significant impact on the (mis)match of the reservoir model with well logs and inverted seismic data.
EG15006A seismic diffraction extraction method for the study of discontinuous geologies using a regularisation algorithm
By considering two constraints from the Sobolev penalty function and the difference operator, we have developed an optimised regularisation model for extracting seismic diffractions. An efficient iterative method based on projection onto a convex set has been developed to solve the minimisation problem. The proposed method has high-resolution capability for detecting small-scale discontinuities.
Frequency-dependent seismic responses from a fractured sandstone layer show complex azimuthal variations due to anisotropic propagation and attenuation of transmission waves associated with fluid flow. It would be practical to investigate wavetrains reflected from the fractured layers that are regarded as integrated units.
EG14126Automatic detection of multiple UXO-like targets using magnetic anomaly inversion and self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering
A method for automatically detecting UXO-like targets based on magnetic anomaly inversion and self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering is proposed. Magnetic anomaly inversion methods are used to estimate the initial locations of targets. The self-adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is then used to cluster these initial locations, giving the number and locations of magnetic targets.
We provide a thorough review of all typical absorbing boundary conditions and derive their equations in a uniform mathematical form. We examine their performance via numerical experiments and qualitatively show their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we provide some suggestions on choosing different boundary conditions for practical applications.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
EG16100Regularisation parameter adaptive selection and its application in the prestack AVO inversion
In this paper, based on L-curve criterion, we propose an improved method for the adaptive acquisition of regularisation parameters for arbitrary norm condition. A detailed derivation of the proposed method is described. Numerical experiments confirm that the proposed method is more accurate and robust than its main competitor, generalised cross-validation.
We present a novel approach for surface-consistent residual phase corrections based on migrated gathers to improve the SNR and resolution of migrated images. This method includes the following new aspects: the residual statics and phase are estimated by dual parameter cross-correlation, and determined after migration.
We have conducted numerical and field experiments to investigate the applicability of electrode configurations and line layouts commonly used for 2D resistivity surveys to 3D inversion. We propose that parallel lines are useful to highlight areas of particular interest where further detailed work with an intersecting line could be carried out.
EG16046Noise reduction of grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic data using an exponential fitting-adaptive Kalman filter
GREATEM field data usually includes a mixed variety of noises, which makes the exponential decaying signal too difficult to identify. This paper presents an exponential fitting-adaptive Kalman filter (EF-AKF) to remove mixed electromagnetic noises, while preserving the signal characteristics. As a new method, the EF-AKF can be used for denoising exponential decaying signals.
EG16022Subsurface attenuation estimation using a novel hybrid method based on FWE function and power spectrum
A new Q estimation approach, called improved frequency weighted exponential (IFWE), is presented by combining the advantage of the FWE method and the power spectrum. Tests of synthetic and field data show that the IFWE is more robust and the bandwidth selection for the IFWE is more tolerant than the FWE.
EG16139Trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion of airborne electromagnetic data for 2D conductivity profiles
We apply a novel trans-dimensional Bayesian approach using a wavelet parameterisation to airborne electromagnetic (AEM) inversions using data from the Broken Hill region. This approach allows exploration of a range of plausible subsurface conductivity models and provides more robust uncertainty estimates while accounting for potential non-uniqueness.
EG16094An implicit spatial and high-order temporal finite difference scheme for 2D acoustic modelling
We propose a new finite difference (FD) scheme that is implicit in space (adopting the Taylor-expansion-based or least-square based FD coefficients) and has high-order accuracy in time (adopting a combination of rhombus and cross stencils). Dispersion analysis, stability analysis and modelling examples validate the superiority of our method.
To evaluate the crustal structure of a site proposed for ocean drilling, high-resolution dense seismic surveys were carried out in the Izu rear arc, Japan. Our results suggest that use of a dense grid configuration is important in volcanic rear-arc situations, in order to recognise heterogeneous crustal structure, such as sediments from different origins.
The artefacts caused by random fluctuations in the background velocity model will contaminate the final image, which makes the work of interpretation difficult to implement in reverse-time migration. The imaging condition proposed in this paper, which exploits the pseudo-Wigner distribution function, can reduce this noise, and also help improve the continuity of complex layers.
To alleviate the effect of phase in waveform classification, the adaptive phase k-means is introduced for unsupervised seismic facies analysis. This method improves the traditional k-means algorithm by using an adaptive phase distance for waveform similarity measure, and is thus robust to phase variations caused by horizon interpretation.
EG16057Investigating subsurface structures of Gachsaran oil field in Iran using 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data
In 2012, the National Iranian Oil Company conducted an electromagnetic survey in the Gachsaran oil field. The Bahr’s skew and Mohr diagrams were used to perform the dimensionality analysis. Magnetotelluric data were modelled using the smoothness-constrained least-squares method. The resulting model revealed the main anticline and overthrust zone in the region.
EG16011Effect of ground undulation and mounted vehicle velocity variation on stepped frequency continuous wave GPR data
This paper describes a method to generate dataset on stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar for land mine detection. A novel ground undulation and ground bounce removal filter has been proposed which mitigates the effects of vehicle velocity variations. Kirchhoff and F-K migration algorithms are applied to the filtered output.
Residual noise remains in airborne time domain electromagnetic profiles after preprocessing the data, and this noise affects the exploration of targets. An approach to reduce this noise based on the minimum noise fraction has been proposed in this paper.
EG16136Comparative analyses of seismic site conditions and microzonation of the major cities in Gangwon Province, Korea
To determine the seismic site conditions and microzonation of Chuncheon, Wonju, and Gangneung in Korea, shear-wave velocities were derived at 313 sites by the ESPAC method. The proxy-based Vs30 indicated that these cities were mainly categorised into NEHRP classes B, C, and D, with a minor proportion of A.
EG16044MOPSO: a new computing algorithm for joint inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curve and refraction traveltimes
This study introduces the multi-objective particle swarm optimisation (MOPSO) strategy as a new tool for joint inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curve and refraction traveltimes. The proposed algorithm was tested on two synthetic datasets and an experimental dataset. The results showed that the applied joint inversion technique can considerably reduce uncertainties of the inverted models.
EG16037Multi-scale full waveform inversion for areas with irregular surface topography in an auxiliary coordinate system
We implement full waveform inversion in an auxiliary coordinate system to improve inversion quality of near-surface regions with strong elevation and velocity variation. Furthermore, a time-domain multi-scale decomposition method and an optimised encoding strategy are introduced to the inversion frame to promote the practical application of our method.
EG16056Applying multi-wavelength, multi-polarimetric and interferometric airborne radar data for geological mapping in densely forested north-western Tasmania
Airborne multi-wavelength, multi-polarimetric and interferometric radar data (NASA’s AIRSAR/TOPSAR) was processed and applied for geological mapping within densely forested north-western Tasmania. The results successfully compared with geophysical, topographic and vegetation classification information and showed the potential of such data to assist in the upgrading of existing published geological mapping.
EG16042Regional magnetic lithologies and structures as controls on porphyry copper deposits: evidence from Iran
The Tertiary magmatic belts host the porphyry copper deposits in Iran. The combination of upward continuation and edge enhancement filters were used to find and predict the pattern of distribution of these deposits. The results prove that the deposits locate on regional magnetic lithologies and structures.
EG15114Seismic data decomposition and reconstruction with sparse Gaussian beams and sparse optimisation method
Sparse Gaussian beam decomposition and reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem. We construct a zero-norm constrained minimisation model, develop a dip-angle scanning strategy and adopt a quasi-Newton method to find the solution. This method can recover full wave field data and can be used for sparse Gaussian beam migration.
We have developed a new interpolation process for insufficient 3D field data that applies 2D curvelet transform-based projection onto convex sets (POCS) to the kx-ky transformed data of each time slice of 3D data. Additionally, to acquire accurate interpolation results, we have designed the preparation process to render the input data irregularly distributed with small-sized gaps.
EG16010The research on the buried public monumental complexes of Lupiae (Lecce) by geophysical prospecting
This paper presents a case study that involves a geophysical survey employing the surface 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the areas located in the south-western sector of the historical centre of Lecce (Italy). GPR measurements significantly contributed to reconstruction of the complex subsurface properties in these modern urban areas.
EG16076New constraints on the neotectonic stress pattern of the Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia
The results of this study suggest a regional E–W orientation of the maximum horizontal stress in the Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges. Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes suggest that the majority of events occur in a thrust faulting stress regime. However, our data also indicate the presence of strike-slip and normal faulting stress regimes in the region, which has not been suggested extensively before this study.
EG15123Traveltimes and conversion-point positions for P-SV converted wave propagation in a transversely isotropic medium: numerical calculations and physical model studies
This study uses ultrasonic physical modelling to verify that Fermat’s minimum-time principle is better than the anisotropic non-hyperbolic moveout and conversion-point (CP) equations for calculating the traveltime and CP position of a P-SV wave reflected from a strong vertical transversely isotropic medium.
The outliers-out (OlO) stack is a novel seismic data stacking technique that is based on excluding a specific number of outliers from each time sample before stacking. The OlO stacking parameters are automatically obtained from the data according to the statistical distribution of amplitudes. The superiority of the OlO stack has been verified by experiments.
EG15021Radiogenic heat production in Rudeis Formation, Lower Miocene, Belayim marine oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt
This study describes radiogenic heat production (RHP) estimated from two sets of well logging data recorded in Rudeis Formation, Belayim marine oil field. Cross-correlation of the estimated RHP (AR and ABR) yielded a moderate fit of 0.75. The three-dimensional (3D)-slicing of the reservoir shows that the northern and north-western parts of the study area have higher RHP compared to other parts.
Depth variation of scattering attenuation by applying single events to multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) was recently shown; however, this application inevitably combined several events due to insufficient data. This study demonstrated that a flexible range window can be applied successfully to solely single events in MLTWA.
EG16020Identification of small-scale discontinuities based on dip-oriented gradient energy entropy coherence estimation
We have proposed a dip-oriented gradient energy entropy (DOGEE) coherence method to detect subtle faults and structural features. Theoretical synthetic datasets and a real dataset show that our proposed method is not only robust to noise, but also improves the clarity of small-scale discontinuities.
EG15107Analysis of crooked-line 2D seismic reflection data recorded in areas with complex surface and subsurface conditions
A crooked-line 2D seismic reflection dataset recorded in the northern part of the Eastern Pannonian Basin was processed to obtain a high-resolution seismic image for the area of interest. Refraction interferometry was used to enhance the first arrivals and to compute static corrections with good accuracy.
EG16031Separation of prestack seismic diffractions using an improved sparse apex-shifted hyperbolic Radon transform
We have developed an improved sparse apex-shifted hyperbolic Radon transform with Fourier-kernel Stolt-based modelling and imaging operators to separate seismic diffractions from reflections. The time axis is stretched to overcome the limitation of the multi-velocity model and a sparsity-promoting inversion is implemented to enhance the resolution of the Radon panel.
EG15077Relationship between bulk mineralogy and induced polarisation responses in iron oxide-copper-gold and porphyry copper mineralisation, northern Chile
We have studied the correlation between bulk mineralogy and induced polarisation (IP) responses in iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry copper concealed mineralised systems in northern Chile. Data analyses show that bulk sulphide concentration is the first order factor that explains variation in the IP effect, even for the case of magnetite-related IOCG mineralisation.
A new parameterisation using P-wave velocity, Poisson’s ratio and density is proposed for multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for isotropic elastic media. By introducing Poisson’s ratio, the virtual source for the P-wave velocity generates additional S-waves in the partial derivative wavefields, which increases the spatial resolution of FWI.
EG15095Short-offset grounded-wire TEM method for efficient detection of mined-out areas in vegetation-covered mountainous coalfields
The objective of this study was to overcome the limitations in using the loop-source TEM method and realise the efficient detection of mined-out areas using the short-offset grounded-wire TEM (SOTEM) method in vegetation-covered mountainous coalfields. The feasibility of SOTEM is verified by the drilling result in the field test.
Benefitting from the forward modelling studies, the phenomenon of spatial mispositioning in apparent reflections caused by the symmetry axis orientation of the TI overburden was demonstrated. Numerical manipulations show the imaging problems can be well described by the TERF method and properly handled by the RAKTM method.
EG15112Improved reservoir characterisation using fuzzy logic platform: an integrated petrophysical, seismic structural and poststack inversion study
In this study, petrophysical properties, seismic structural and poststack seismic inversion results are integrated using the fuzzy logic AND operator to characterise the Tensleep Sandstone Formation at Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. The 3D seismic cube and logging datasets of 17 wells are used for enhancing the seismic and petrophysical evaluation.
EG15097Simultaneous seismic interpolation and denoising based on sparse inversion with a 3D low redundancy curvelet transform
This paper introduces a low redundancy curvelet transform which can reduce the redundancy to 10 for three dimensional data and simultaneously interpolate and denoise. Numerical experiments on synthetic and field data demonstrate that the low redundancy transform can provide reliable results while at the same time improving the computational efficiency.
Subsurface-property estimation from remote geophysical measurements is subject to non-Gaussian errors. We propose to minimise the misfit with a robust error measure, which is based on a generalised Gaussian distribution. A suboptimal solution is proposed through a mixed-norm functional combination of the l1 and l2 norms.
EG16035Three-dimensional inversion of in-line resistivity data for monitoring a groundwater recharge experiment in a pyroclastic plateau
An artificial groundwater recharge experiment was conducted in a pyroclastic plateau in Kagoshima Prefecture in Japan, and time-efficient in-line resistivity surveys were performed along four intersecting lines. The zones of decreased resistivity shifted with time, indicating non-uniform penetration of water from the recharge areas and a horizontal flow of the recharged water.
EG15059Ground resistivity method and DCIP2D forward and inversion modelling to identify alteration at the Midwest uranium deposit, northern Saskatchewan, Canada
Forward and inverse modelling are used to demonstrate that the resistivity method can detect alteration above the Midwest uranium deposit in Canada. The inverse section of the field data is similar to the inverse section of a synthetic model when alteration is present, but dissimilar when there is no alteration.
EG15039A Monte Carlo approach to constraining uncertainties in modelled downhole gravity gradiometry applications
In this paper, we describe the utilisation of numerical models to simulate the downhole application of gravity gradiometry in order to benchmark the impact of a density contrast at depth, with specific application to monitor a density contrast consistent with the sequestration of CO2 displacing brine water in an abandoned oil reservoir.
EG15078Near-surface high resolution imaging of a metallogenic zone in the northern fringe of Dalma volcanics in eastern India using electrical resistivity tomography
An ERT survey was conducted over a defined conducting zone through a magnetotelluric survey in the Dalma volcanics, India. The resistivity models resolved four major zones and the results corroborate well with the geological succession. The resistivity values of less than 1 Ωm at a depth of ~25 m correspond to the deposit.
We obtained the shallow S-wave velocity profile distributions in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia, from the inversion of the observed Rayleigh wave phase velocity spectra using a microtremor survey. The profiles will be used for calculation of the average S-wave velocity of the upper 30 m and site amplification factors for seismic hazard evaluation in the area.
EG15053New comprehensive standard seismic noise models and 3D seismic noise variation for Morocco territory, North Africa, obtained using seismic broadband stations
New comprehensive seismic noise models and 3D seismic noise variation are constructed for Morocco, North Africa, using 23 broadband stations. The results bring a new perception to noise models and can be considered as a significant contribution. This study supplements the Peterson models and allows future permanent stations to be sited in Morocco.
EG15074Divergence correction schemes in finite difference method for 3D tensor CSAMT in axial anisotropic media
This paper presents a study on divergence correction in the finite difference method for 3D tensor controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) in an axial anisotropic media. We show how divergence correction can be performed more efficiently and the study results can be used to help accelerate a whole 3D tensor CSAMT forward modelling and inversion.
EG16036Microtremor exploration for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at stations in local strong motion network in Bursa, Yalova, and Kocaeli in north-western Turkey
We conducted microtremor array surveys for shallow Vs profiles at strong motion stations in Bursa, Yalova and Kocaeli provinces in Turkey. The Vs profiles to a depth of 100 m were deduced from Rayleigh wave phase velocities in frequencies from 1 to 30 Hz. Site amplification factors were discussed with the profiles.
Rayleigh wave experiments were performed in homogeneous and lateral inhomogeneous models using acoustic and seismoelectric measurements, respectively. The experimental results suggest a potential application of the seismoelectric conversion effect to improve spatial resolution and meet the requirement of dispersion measurement in the laboratory acoustic experiments involving Rayleigh waves.
EG16039Amplification characteristics of seismic observation sites from S-wave energy, coda waves and background noise from the Fukuoka earthquake series
This study applied a method that uses the H/V spectral ratio of ground motions to analyse site amplification characteristics. Its application was extended to S-waves, coda waves, and background noise. Analysis of data at seismic stations in Korea suggested consistent site amplification characteristics among the three types of seismic energies despite a logarithmic difference in the Fourier transform values.
EG15014A time-frequency analysis method to obtain stable estimates of magnetotelluric response function based on Hilbert-Huang transform
Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform, a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. The response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency.
EG160273D numerical modelling of negative apparent conductivity anomalies in loop-loop electromagnetic measurements: a case study at a dacite intrusion in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan
Under certain geological conditions, low induction number electromagnetic instruments are known to produce negative apparent conductivity responses. This is particularly the case when the subsurface is characterised by highly conductive bodies. We present 3D numerical modelling results of dacite dike intrusions in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan.
EG15035Fast residual static correction method using first arrivals in the 3D shot–receiver united domain
We introduce a residual static correction method using first arrivals. Since we fit and smooth the first breaks in a 3D shot–receiver united domain, this method has a lower sensitivity to first arrivals and performs better than traditional methods.
EG15052Gravity, magnetic and resistivity investigations of the Okauia Low Temperature Geothermal System in alluvial sediments of the Hauraki Depression, New Zealand
Gravity, ground magnetics, DC resistivity and TDEM measurements are used to delineate the near-surface extent of the Okauia Low Temperature Geothermal System, New Zealand. Potential permeable pathways mapped by the geophysical surveys are consistent with the geological environment.
EG15118Rapid depth estimation for compact magnetic sources using a semi-automated spectrum-based method
An object program provides hands-on searching through magnetic survey data. The power spectrum is remapped on-screen so that any isolated compact body appears as a straight line in a spectrum of depths. Results are typically noisy, so facilities are provided to change parameters to track down an elusive depth signal.
An analysis of three approaches for estimating 3D PS statics is presented. These include a surface-consistent inversion algorithm, PPS refraction statics, and a robust statistical method. This analysis is achieved through the use of synthetic models, and a coal-scale 3D-3C survey acquired in the Bowen Basin.
EG15117Testing cluster analysis on combined petrophysical and geochemical data for rock mass classification
We demonstrate the usefulness of fuzzy clustering for semi-automated rock mass classification and the importance of data preconditioning prior to analysis. We also show the impact of choosing different subsets and combinations of the available data on the classification result.
EG16019An efficient waveform inversion using the common mid-point gather in the wavenumber-space-time domain
We introduce an efficient waveform inversion algorithm using common mid-point gathers. Since we perform both modelling and inversion in the wavenumber-space-time domain, it recovers only a one-dimensional velocity model. However, we can build a two-dimensional velocity model with moderate dips by assuming that reflectors are locally flat.
EG15041Fast inversion of gravity data using the symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm
We describe a new fast gravity inversion method to recover a 3D density model from gravity data. This gravity inversion method introduces a stabiliser model norm with a depth weighting function to produce smooth models and uses a new symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) iterative conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm.
The spatial distribution and characteristics of gas hydrates in the Kumano Forearc Basin of the Nankai Trough were investigated by using logging data and 3D seismic data. This study demonstrates that tectonic activity of the underlying accretionary prism at the plate convergent margin is responsible for hydrate formation.
Accuracy and resolution of velocity spectra are very important in seismic data processing, as they have considerable impact on the quality of the final seismic section. We improve the accuracy and resolution of velocity spectra by introducing two weighting functions to the traditional semblance velocity analysis.
3D Fourier convolution is a fast method for forward modelling irregular magnetic bodies. A kernel consisting of the field of a single dipole, convolved over a random distribution of dipoles, simulates the heterogeneity of bulk material. A demonstration studies the depth information collected by different survey parameters.
EG16003Converted-wave guided imaging condition for elastic reverse time migration with wavefield separation
Polarity reversals and cross-talk noises, which degrade the converted wave images (P-S, S-P, and S-S images) of elastic reverse time migration (ERTM), are addressed. To overcome these problems, we derive a new P-S converted wave imaging condition for ERTM based on wavefield separation techniques.
EG15121Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan
In order to evaluate the freshwater–saltwater interface of three sample areas in the Chugoku-Shikoku region of western Japan, we conducted CSAMT surveys at locations with varying hydrogeological features, and performed laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples from each site.
We have developed a new fast picking method, optimised for noisy microseismic data, using cross-correlation and stacking. In experiments with synthetic data and field data, this method produces reliable results and the computation time is dramatically reduced.
EG150703D inversion of total magnetic intensity data for time-domain EM at the Lalor massive sulphide deposit
3D voxel inversion of HeliSAM data at the Lalor massive sulphide deposit suffers from: (1) contamination of early-time data by the near-surface infrastructure and (2) creation of a mathematically acceptable but non-geologic model from inversion of late-time data. We propose a procedure that incorporates the infrastructure in our inversion, and a warm-start approach to overcome the non-uniqueness.
EG14120Automatic first-arrival picking based on extended super-virtual interferometry with quality control procedure
We have developed an automatic first-arrival picking method that combines extended super-virtual interferometry with quality control. The field data examples show that the proposed method yields stacked sections of similar quality to those obtained by laborious and costly manual picking.
We perform 3D joint inversion of surface and borehole data using cokriging. The examples presented demonstrate that the method is remarkable in its ability to include the geological information and physical property. Also, both depth and horizontal resolution of the recovered model can be improved by joint inversion.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
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